Botulinum toxin, Clostridium botulinum is a toxin obtained from bacteria. Botox exhibits its effect by preventing the release of substances that pass through the nerve endings and stop the passage between the nerves and the organs reached by the nerves. Stopping nerve conduction causes the functions of the organ that the nerve reaches to decrease or disappear completely. Botox’s mechanism of action is used in many areas in medicine. In the field of aesthetics, it is generally used to reduce the lines on the face that appear with the movements of the expression muscles and to reduce sweating in the areas of excessive sweating.
The working of the expression muscles over the years makes the folds on the skin prominent, thus creating dynamic lines on the face. The most common dynamic lines appear on the forehead, between the eyebrows, around the eyes and mouth. The lines on the forehead and eye corners give the person an older look, while the lines between the eyebrows give the person a frowned and angry look. By applying Botox to the expression muscles, the movements of these muscles can be weakened, and the decrease in muscle movements reduces the skin folds and the lines caused by folds. In this way, a significant improvement is achieved in the facial expression that appears to be old and angry.
When Botox is applied to the sweat glands, the work between the sweat glands and nerve endings can also be stopped, thereby reducing the function of the sweat glands. The areas of the body that sweat the most are palms and armpits. When Botox is applied to persons suffering from excessive sweating and related sweat odor, the complaints are improved.
Botox is applied in the form of injection and is not a painful procedure, a slight pain may be felt at the moment of injection. When a decrease in the movements of the expression muscles is desired, injection is made into the expression muscles, and when the complaint expresses the desire for reduction of sweating, it is injected into the skin. The effect of Botox occurs in the first week following the injection and the duration of action is 3-9 months, but on average, it is 6 months. The application can be repeated when Botox loses its effect. It has been observed that when people who have been given Botox regularly for 2 years and continue the procedure, their muscles have been markedly weakened.
Botox has no serious side effects on health. After the application, it may cause a temporary swelling, bruising, and rarely cause the eyelid to droop temporarily. It is not yet fully known whether Botox has a harmful effect during pregnancy and lactation. Therefore, Botox applications during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended. It should not be used on people with diseases of the nervous-muscular system (such as Eaton-Lambert syndrome, myasthenia gravis).